Q&A: Trendy CBD rocks retail world, but does it work?

FDA 表示 CBD 不能作为食品补充剂的成分,将对零售产品产生哪些影响?

2019-04-15 21:25:33 MarketBeat

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There is very little science behind most of the health claims made for CBD, the cannabis product turning up in cosmetics, foods and dietary supplements. With mainstream retailers Walgreens and CVS offering CBD skin products, it's easy to believe there must be something special about the trendy ingredient. But the claims are largely unproven, quality control standards don't exist and the legal status of CBD-infused food is in doubt. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration plans to hold a public hearing May 31 to gather more information on the science, manufacturing and sale of cannabis compounds such as CBD. A look at what we know as U.S. regulators work out what will and won't be allowed: WHAT IS CBD? CBD is one of more than 100 compounds found in marijuana. It's extracted using alcohol or carbon dioxide in factories. It's added to oils, mixed into creams and lotions and sold in candies and liquid drops. Widely sold online, CBD now is going mainstream. Prices range from $12 to $150 an ounce at high-end shops. CBD often comes from a cannabis plant known as hemp, which is defined by the U.S. government as having less than 0.3% THC. That's important because THC is what causes marijuana's mind-altering effect. CBD doesn't get people high, although it may be calming. Keep in mind some CBD products may contain THC, whether or not the label says so. People drug tested for work, addiction programs or because they take prescription opioids should take note: CBD products have caused people to fail urine drug screens. IS IT A MIRACLE CURE? If you believe the hype, CBD treats pain, relieves anxiety and both helps you sleep and keeps you focused. Most claims are based on studies in rats, mice or in test tubes. Some human research has been done, but in small numbers of people. One exception: For two rare seizure disorders, the evidence for CBD was strong enough to convince the FDA to approve GW Pharmaceutical's drug Epidiolex, which contains a purified form. The FDA has sent warning letters to companies marketing products with claims for CBD's effects on cancer, Alzheimer's disease, fibromyalgia and drug addiction. Only drugs that have been reviewed by the FDA as safe and effective can make claims that they treat or prevent diseases or medical conditions. Many CBD producers attempt to sidestep the issue by using only vague language about general health and well-being. ANY SIDE EFFECTS? Scant research means not much is known about side effects either. In epilepsy research, CBD changed the way the body processed other drugs. That suggests CBD could interact with medications in ways we still don't know about. The most common side effects of the CBD drug Epidiolex include sleepiness, decreased appetite, diarrhea, increases in liver enzymes, exhaustion, rash and infections. The potential for liver injury and other risks can be handled with medical supervision, former FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb said earlier this month, but less is known about how that would be managed without oversight. And there are questions about overlap if multiple CBD products are used. IS IT LEGAL? For now, the FDA has said CBD is not allowed as an ingredient in food, drinks or dietary supplements. In stating its position, the FDA cited a provision of the law prohibiting food makers from using active drug ingredients or those still undergoing substantial research. But the agency doesn't have the resources to police all the CBD products that are already available, said Marc Scheineson, a former FDA official. "They're not going to pull a thousand products from the market," he said. The FDA's authority is over interstate commerce, and local officials have taken differing approaches. In New York, Los Angeles and elsewhere, officials are warning eateries to stop selling it in food and drinks. Maine passed a law allowing it in foods and other products in the state. Skin creams and cosmetics may be on safer footing with the FDA, but that too remains uncertain, said Camille Gourdet of RTI International, a nonprofit research institute in Durham, North Carolina. Though cosmetics aren't subject to premarket approval by the FDA, they could run afoul of regulations if they make specific health claims. Marijuana itself is illegal under federal law; most states that have legalized it allow marijuana-infused foods and candies, called edibles. ARE CBD LABELS ACCURATE? What you buy may contain much less CBD than the label states — or much more. It may include more THC than you want and it may be contaminated with mold or pesticides. Ask to see testing reports. A 2017 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association found 70% of CBD products were mislabeled. Researchers used an independent lab to test 84 products from 31 companies. "You're really flying by the seat of your pants when you buy this stuff," said author Marcel Bonn-Miller of University of Pennsylvania. A product labeled as containing 100 milligrams of CBD may only have 5 milligrams or it may have 200, said Bonn-Miller, now an adviser for a company that sells CBD and other cannabis products. He did not work in the industry when he did the research. "I wouldn't trust any of it until I knew independently it was safe," Bonn-Miller said. WHAT'S AHEAD? CBD research is planned or underway for cancer, autism, diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, chronic pain, alcoholism with PTSD and psychiatric conditions. Results will take years, but some people aren't waiting. "They are vulnerable and really hoping to feel better," said Karen Hande, a nurse practitioner at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center in Nashville. She became an expert in CBD because so many of her cancer patients were trying it. She tells them the evidence isn't enough to back the claims, but "they want to believe something is going to work." ___ Follow AP's complete marijuana coverage: https://apnews.com/Marijuana ___ The Associated Press Health and Science Department receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Department of Science Education. The AP is solely responsible for all content.
大多数针对 CBD 的健康声明背后都缺乏科学依据。 CBD 是一种大麻产品,主要用于化妆品、食品和膳食补充剂。 主流零售商沃尔格林( Walgreens )和 CVS 提供 CBD 护肤产品,人们很容易相信,一定有一些特别的时尚成分。但这些说法大多未经证实,质量控制标准不存在, CBD 注入的食品的法律地位受到质疑。 美国食品药品监督管理局(Food and Drug Administration)计划于5月31日举行公开听证会,以收集更多关于生物多样性公约等大麻化合物的科学、制造和销售的信息。 看看我们所知的美国监管机构会得出什么将被禁止: 什么是 CBD ? CBD 是大麻中发现的100多种化合物之一。它是用酒精或二氧化碳在工厂提取的。它被添加到油中,混合成奶油和乳液,并以糖果和液滴的形式销售。 目前, CBD 已成为主流网络产品。高端商店的价格从每盎司12美元到150美元不等。 CBD 通常来自大麻工厂,美国政府定义大麻的 THC 低于0.3%。这很重要,因为 THC 是导致大麻思想改变效果的原因。 CBD 不会让人兴奋,尽管它可能会让人平静。请记住,一些 CBD 产品可能包含 THC ,无论标签是否这样说。 人们的毒品测试工作,成瘾计划或因为他们服用处方类阿片类药物应该注意: CBD 产品已导致人们失败尿药屏幕。 它是 MIRACLE CURE 吗? 如果你相信催眠, CBD 可以治疗疼痛,缓解焦虑,同时也可以帮助你睡眠,让你集中注意力。 大多数的说法是基于对老鼠、老鼠或试管的研究。一些人的研究已经完成,但在少数人。 一个例外:对于两种罕见的癫痫发作障碍, CBD 的证据足够强烈,以说服 FDA 批准 GW 制药的药物 Epidiolex ,其中含有纯化形式。 FDA 已经向那些声称 CBD 对癌症、老年痴呆症、纤维肌痛和药物成瘾有影响的公司发出警告信。 只有被 FDA 审查为安全有效的药物才能声称它们能够治疗或预防疾病或医疗状况。许多生物多样性公约的生产者试图回避这个问题,只使用有关一般健康和幸福的模糊语言。 有没有小岛屿 EFFECTS ? 扫描研究也意味着不太了解副作用。在癫痫研究中, CBD 改变了身体处理其他药物的方式。这表明 CBD 可以用我们还不知道的方式与药物相互作用。 CBD 药物的最常见副作用包括嗜睡、食欲下降、腹泻、肝酶升高、精疲力竭、皮疹和感染。FDA 前专员斯科特·戈特利布本月早些时候说,肝损伤和其他风险的可能性可以通过医疗监督来处理,但对如何在没有监督的情况下进行管理的了解较少。如果使用多个 CBD 产品,就会出现重叠的问题。 是吗? 目前, FDA 已经表示 CBD 不能作为食品、饮料或膳食补充剂的一种成分。 FDA 在陈述其立场时引用了一项法律规定,禁止食品制造商使用活性药物成分或那些仍在进行实质性研究的成分。但 FDA 前官员马克·谢农( MarcScheineon )说, FDA 没有足够的资源来监管所有已有的 CBD 产品。 “他们不会从市场上吸引一千种产品,”他说。 食品和药物管理局的权力是州际商业,地方官员采取了不同的方法。在纽约、洛杉矶和其他地方,官员警告餐馆停止出售食品和饮料。缅因州通过了一项法律,允许食品和其他产品进入该州。 北卡罗来纳州达勒姆的非盈利研究机构 RTI 国际的 Camille Gourdet 说,护肤霜和化妆品可能在 FDA 的基础上更安全,但这也是不确定的。虽然化妆品不需要经过 FDA 的上市前批准,但如果他们提出具体的健康声明,他们可能违反法规。 根据联邦法律,大麻本身是非法的;大多数州已经将其合法化,允许大麻输入食品和糖果,称为食用。 CBD LABELS 是可以接受的吗? 你买的东西可能包含的 CBD 要比标签上的州少得多——或者更多。它可能包括超过你想要的 THC 和它可能被污染的霉菌或杀虫剂。请查看测试报告。 2017年《美国医学会杂志》的一项研究发现,70%的 CBD 产品被误导。研究人员使用独立的实验室测试了31家公司的84种产品。 “当你买这些东西的时候,你真的坐在裤子的座位上,”宾夕法尼亚大学的作家 MarcelBonn-Miller 说。 一种被标记为含有100毫克 CBD 的产品可能只有5毫克,或者可能有200毫克, Bonn-Miller 说,他现在是一家销售 CBD 和其他大麻产品的公司的顾问。他在做这项研究时没有在这个行业工作。 “我不会相信任何一个,除非我知道它是安全的独立,”波恩-米勒说。 什么是啊? CBD 研究计划或正在进行中,以癌症,自闭症,糖尿病神经病变,纤维肌痛,慢性疼痛,酒精中毒与创伤后应激障碍和精神疾病。结果需要几年时间,但有些人并不等待。 纳什维尔范德比尔特-英格拉姆癌症中心的护士 KarenHande 说:“他们很脆弱,真的希望感觉更好。” 她成为 CBD 的专家,因为她的许多癌症患者都在尝试。她告诉他们,证据不足以支持这些说法,但“他们想相信某些事情会起作用。” ____ 追踪美联社完整的大麻报道: https://apnews 。com / Marijuana ____ 美联社健康和科学部得到霍华德休斯医学研究所科学教育部的支持。AP 全权负责所有内容。

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