Chinese tariffs having minimal effects on U.S. hemp industry, experts say

专家称中国的关税对美国大麻产业影响极小

2019-08-14 08:07:27 Hemp Industry

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Most American farmers are in full-fledged panic mode following news that companies in China have suspended use of U.S. agricultural products in response to tariffs imposed by the Trump administration on Chinese goods. But the nascent U.S. hemp industry shouldn’t worry, economists and trade experts told Hemp Industry Daily. A $5.9 billion market, China is one of the largest buyers of U.S. agricultural products, following Mexico, Canada and Japan. But China may stop importing agricultural products altogether – and impose tariffs on goods it has already purchased – in response to the new tariffs. “While hemp seeds and true hemp products (hemp biomass) are on the list of products affected by the tariff, neither account for a significant amount,” Cheng told Hemp Industry Daily. In 2017, China sent about $3.3 million worth of hemp to the U.S., according to Hemp Industry Daily’s 2018 Hemp & CBD Factbook. That made China a distant second to Canada, which exported roughly $58 million of hemp to the U.S. that year. The majority of hemp imports into the U.S. are hempseeds coming from Canada, while hemp imports from China are harder to track, Cheng said. “There is no cannabinoid market in China, so the hemp farmers and businesses serving the cannabinoid market (in the U.S.) have no business export to China,” he said. “The industrial usage of hemp is satisfied by domestic production of hemp in China. Thus, the tariffs will have no effect on U.S. hemp producers and businesses.” Switch to hemp production Row-crop farmers of traditional products like soybeans are harder hit by uncertain global markets and falling prices, and many have shown they are ready to move toward growing more profitable alternative crops, according to Bob Hoban, president and founder of Denver-based cannabis law firm Hoban Law Group. The Chinese tariffs are the last straw, he told Hemp Industry Daily. “I see the tariffs that have been imposed as it relates to China as a very beneficial thing for U.S. hemp farmers, or at least for U.S. farmers that would like to pivot to industrial hemp,” Hoban said. Processing hit While the China trade war may not have an immediate direct effect on hemp farmers, those in the business looking to source lower-cost processing equipment from China will likely see a negative impact from the tariffs, according to Jim Parco, founder and co-owner of CBD company MesaOrganics and Purplebee’s in Pueblo, Colorado, who also teaches economics and business at Colorado College. “China is very good at manufacturing equipment, particularly the types of systems that we need to process hemp, and the U.S. just hasn’t developed the same kind of manufacturing expertise that China has,” Parco told Hemp Industry Daily in an email. Among those companies is Fibonacci, a Kentucky manufacturer of hemp-derived wood products that had to pay a 25% tariff on an industrial wood press from China. The company is appealing the tariff. Depending on the type of equipment, Hoban said, hemp processors can source equipment from manufacturers in the European Union at comparable prices to lower-cost Chinese equipment. “I look at the European Union as having some of the best industrial hemp technologies that exist,” Hoban said. “What they don’t have in Europe is access to the U.S. market. So there are favorable deals to be had with limited tariff impact that puts you in the same ballpark with probably better technology by sourcing from Europe.” Cheng said that in addition to equipment, the indirect immediate effects of the tariffs will include increased costs on imported accessories used for making hemp products like cigarette papers and other manufactured extracts and packaging. Ongoing tariffs could also impede the growth of the industry when hemp-derived extracts or industrial hemp export markets become more active in the future, Cheng said. Parco agreed, saying the tariffs are increasing costs to U.S. producers “artificially in hopes of future gains.” “Whether or not that materializes remains an empirical question,” Parco said. “But what is known is that the harms of increased costs today are real losses for the small businesses who are struggling at building this new industry.”
在中国企业因特朗普政府对中国商品征收关税而暂停使用美国农产品的消息传出后,多数美国农民正处于全面恐慌的状态。 但经济学家和贸易专家告诉《 Hemp Industry Daily 》,美国新兴的大麻产业不应担忧。 作为一个59亿美元的市场,中国是美国农产品的最大买家之一,仅次于墨西哥、加拿大和日本。但作为对新关税的回应,中国可能会全面停止进口农产品,并对已经购买的商品征收关税。 “尽管大麻种子和真正的大麻产品(大麻生物量)被列入受关税影响的产品清单,但这两种产品都不占很大的比例,”郑告诉《大麻工业日报》。 根据《 Hemp Industry Daily 》2018年《 Hemp & CBD Factbook 》的数据,2017年,中国向美国输送了价值约330万美元的大麻。这使中国成为第二个向加拿大出口大麻的国家,加拿大当年向美国出口了大约5800万美元大麻。 郑说,进口到美国的大麻大部分来自加拿大,而从中国进口的大麻则更难追踪。 “中国没有大麻市场,因此大麻农民和服务于大麻市场的企业(在美国)没有对中国的商业出口,”他说。 “国内大麻生产满足了大麻的工业用途。因此,关税不会对美国大麻生产商和企业产生影响。” 切换到大麻生产 丹佛大麻律师事务所 Hoban Law Group 总裁兼创始人鲍勃•霍班( Bob Hoban )表示,由于全球市场不确定和价格下跌,像大豆这样传统产品的农作物种植者受到的打击更大,而且许多人已经表明,他们准备转向种植更有利可图的替代作物。 他告诉《 Hemp Industry Daily 》,中国的关税是最后一根稻草。 霍班说:“我认为,对美国大麻种植者,或者至少对希望转向工业大麻的美国农民,征收与中国有关的关税是一件非常有益的事情。” 处理命中 CBD 公司 Mesa Organics 和 Purplebee's 在科罗拉多州普韦布洛的创始人兼联合所有者吉姆•帕科( Jim Parco )表示,尽管中国贸易战可能不会立即对大麻种植者产生直接影响,但那些希望从中国采购低成本加工设备的企业,很可能会受到关税的负面影响。他还在科罗拉多大学教授经济和商业。 “中国非常擅长制造设备,尤其是我们需要加工大麻的系统类型,而美国还没有开发出中国拥有的那种制造专长,” Parco 在一封电子邮件中向《 Hemp Industry Daily 》表示。 这些公司中包括 Fibonacci ,一家肯塔基的大麻衍生木材产品制造商,必须支付25%的关税从中国的工业木材印刷机。该公司正在对关税提出上诉。 霍班说,根据设备的类型,大麻处理器可以从欧盟的制造商那里以与低成本的中国设备相当的价格采购设备。 “我认为欧盟拥有一些最好的工业大麻技术。” “他们在欧洲没有的是进入美国市场。因此,在关税影响有限的情况下,达成了一些优惠协议,通过从欧洲采购,你就可以进入同样的竞技场,拥有更好的技术。” 郑说,除了设备外,关税的间接直接影响将包括进口配件的成本增加,用于生产大麻产品,如香烟纸和其他人造提取物和包装。 郑说,持续的关税也可能阻碍该行业的增长,因为大麻衍生提取物或工业大麻出口市场在未来变得更加活跃。 Parco 同意这一观点,称关税正在增加美国生产商的成本,“是人为的,希望未来能有所收益”。 “这是否会成为现实,仍是一个实证问题,”帕科说。“但众所周知,如今成本上升的危害,是那些在建设这个新行业方面举步维艰的小企业的真正损失。”

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